Fish Advice Centre

Fish are such a relaxing pet but they don’t communicate their needs very well – until it is too late often. There are some good tips to keeping your aquarium in good shape, your fish fed correctly and managing the work involved.
Fish Advice Centre

Fish Advise Centre

The feeding requirements for fish can vary depending on their species, size, and specific dietary needs. Here are some general guidelines regarding the amount and frequency of feeding:

Amount of food: It's important not to overfeed fish, as uneaten food can lead to water quality issues. A good rule of thumb is to feed an amount of food that fish can consume within 2-3 minutes. If there is excess food floating in the water after this time, you may be feeding too much. Adjust the portion size accordingly.

Frequency of feeding: In general, most fish benefit from being fed once or twice a day. However, this can vary based on the species. Some fish, like small tropical fish, may require feeding small amounts multiple times a day to mimic their natural feeding patterns. Larger fish or those with slower metabolisms may be fine with one feeding per day. Research the specific feeding requirements of your fish species to determine the ideal feeding frequency.

Feed a balanced diet: Ensure that the fish are receiving a nutritionally balanced diet that suits their species. This may include a combination of high-quality commercial fish flakes, pellets, or frozen foods specific to their dietary needs. Some fish species may also benefit from occasional live or frozen foods like brine shrimp or bloodworms. Consult with a knowledgeable aquarium specialist or research the dietary needs of your particular fish species to provide an appropriate and varied diet.

Observe fish behaviour: Monitor the behaviour and condition of your fish to gauge if they are being fed appropriately. Healthy fish are active, have good coloration, and display normal feeding behaviour. If fish are showing signs of excessive weight gain, bloating, or lethargy, it may indicate overfeeding. On the other hand, if fish appear thin or exhibit decreased activity, it may suggest they are not receiving enough food.

Remember to also consider any specific instructions or recommendations provided by the seller or breeder of your fish species. It's important to tailor the feeding regimen to the specific needs of your fish. Additionally, regularly test the water parameters and maintain a clean and well-maintained aquarium environment to support the health and well-being of your fish.

The frequency of water changes in a fish tank depends on various factors, including the size of the tank, the number and size of fish, the type of filtration system, and the overall water quality. As a general guideline, it is recommended to perform regular partial water changes of about 10-25% of the tank volume on a regular basis. Here are some considerations:

Weekly water changes: For most aquariums, a weekly water change of around 10-25% is a good starting point. This helps remove accumulated waste, excess nutrients, and maintains water quality.

Monitoring water parameters: Regularly test the water parameters such as ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, and pH to assess the overall water quality. If any of these parameters are consistently outside the acceptable range, more frequent water changes may be necessary to maintain a healthy environment for the fish.

Size of the tank and fish stocking: Smaller tanks and tanks with a higher number or larger fish may require more frequent water changes to keep the water quality optimal. Overstocking the tank can lead to faster accumulation of waste and higher nutrient levels.

Filtration system: The efficiency and capacity of the filtration system in your tank play a role in determining the frequency of water changes. A well-maintained and appropriately sized filter can help remove waste and maintain water quality, reducing the need for frequent water changes. However, even with a good filtration system, regular water changes are still important.

Special circumstances: There may be situations that warrant more frequent water changes, such as if the tank is experiencing an ammonia or nitrite spike, if there are sick or diseased fish in the tank, or if there are specific water quality issues.

Remember to treat the fresh water with a water conditioner that removes chlorine and chloramines before adding it to the tank. When performing water changes, take care to avoid drastic temperature or pH changes, as sudden fluctuations can stress the fish.

It's important to note that these are general guidelines, and the specific needs of your fish and tank conditions should be taken into account. Observing the behaviour and health of your fish, as well as monitoring water parameters, will help you determine the ideal frequency and volume of water changes for your specific aquarium setup.

Algae growth in fish tanks is a common issue, but there are several methods you can use to help control and reduce it. Here are some approaches to consider:

Regular maintenance: Perform regular water changes to remove excess nutrients that contribute to algae growth.

Clean the tank and decorations regularly, removing any visible algae manually.

Adjust lighting: Reduce the amount of light exposure in the tank by adjusting the lighting duration or intensity. Algae thrive in the presence of light, so providing a proper light cycle and avoiding excessive light can help control their growth.

Consider using a timer for your aquarium lights to ensure consistent and appropriate lighting periods.

Control nutrient levels: Avoid overfeeding your fish, as uneaten food can contribute to excess nutrients in the water, fuelling algae growth. Feed your fish only the amount they can consume within a few minutes.

Use a high-quality fish food to minimize waste and nutrient release.

Test the water parameters regularly and address any issues related to ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate levels, as excessive nutrients can promote algae growth.

Maintain proper filtration: Ensure that your aquarium filtration system is functioning correctly and is appropriately sized for your tank. A good filtration system helps remove excess nutrients from the water and promotes overall water quality.

Clean or replace filter media regularly to prevent the accumulation of debris that could contribute to algae growth.

Introduce algae-eating organisms: Consider adding certain fish, snails, or shrimp species known for their algae-eating habits. For example, Siamese algae eaters, otocinclus catfish, Amano shrimp, or certain snail species can help control algae growth by grazing on it.

However, keep in mind that some algae-eating organisms may have specific care requirements, and their addition should be compatible with the existing fish and plants in your tank. Research the species and consult with a knowledgeable aquarium specialist before introducing them.

Use algae control products cautiously: There are algae control products available in the market, such as algaecides or treatments. However, it's important to use them carefully and according to the instructions, as some products may negatively impact the health of your fish or other aquarium inhabitants.

Consider natural methods and preventive measures before resorting to chemical treatments.

Remember that algae can never be completely eliminated from an aquarium, but with proper care, you can control its growth and maintain a healthy tank environment. Regular maintenance, appropriate lighting, nutrient control, and the introduction of algae-eating organisms are key strategies to keep algae in check.

Here are some essential do's and don'ts for maintaining a fish tank:




Do research: Learn about the specific needs and requirements of the fish species you plan to keep, including their ideal water parameters, temperature, diet, and compatibility with other fish.

Do cycle your tank: Allow your tank to go through the nitrogen cycle before adding fish. This process establishes beneficial bacteria that help break down toxic ammonia and nitrite into less harmful nitrate.

Do monitor water parameters: Regularly test the water parameters such as temperature, pH, ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate levels to ensure a healthy and stable environment for your fish.

Do perform regular water changes: Regularly change a portion of the water to remove accumulated waste, excess nutrients, and maintain water quality. The frequency and volume of water changes depend on the size of the tank, number of fish, and water parameters.

Do maintain proper filtration: Use an appropriate filtration system for your tank size and ensure that it is functioning correctly. Clean or replace filter media regularly to maintain its efficiency.

Do acclimate new fish: When introducing new fish to your tank, acclimate them slowly to minimize stress and prevent shock. Gradually adjust water temperature and parameters to match the tank conditions.

Do provide proper nutrition: Feed your fish a balanced and appropriate diet suitable for their species. Avoid overfeeding and remove any uneaten food after feeding to prevent water pollution.

Do observe and monitor your fish: Regularly observe your fish for signs of health issues, abnormal behaviour, or aggression. Promptly address any concerns and seek appropriate veterinary care if needed.



Don't overstock your tank: Avoid overcrowding your tank as it can lead to poor water quality, stress, and increased aggression among fish. Research the adult size and compatibility of your fish before adding them.

Don't overfeed your fish: Overfeeding can lead to excess waste, poor water quality, and health problems for your fish. Feed them only the amount they can consume within a few minutes, and adjust feeding quantities as needed.

Don't neglect water quality: Poor water quality can be detrimental to fish health. Regularly test and maintain appropriate water parameters, perform regular water changes, and ensure proper filtration to maintain a clean and healthy tank environment.

Don't use harsh chemicals or soaps: Avoid using cleaning agents, soaps, or chemicals in or near the aquarium. These substances can be toxic to fish and disrupt the delicate balance of the tank.

Don't introduce incompatible fish: Research the compatibility of fish species before adding them to your tank. Some fish may be aggressive towards others, leading to stress, injuries, and even death.

Don't introduce wild-caught fish or plants without proper quarantine: Wild-caught fish or plants may introduce diseases or parasites to your tank. Quarantine new additions before introducing them to your established aquarium.

Don't make sudden temperature or water parameter changes: Rapid changes in temperature or water parameters can stress or shock fish. Make changes gradually to allow them to adapt without harm.

Don't neglect regular maintenance: Regular maintenance is crucial for the health of your fish and the longevity of your tank. Regularly clean the tank, decorations, and equipment, and address any issues promptly.

By following these do's and don'ts, you can provide a suitable and thriving environment for your fish and enjoy a successful fish-keeping experience.

Setting up a new fish tank and adding fish on the same day is generally not recommended. It's important to establish a stable and healthy environment for your fish before introducing them. Here's why:

Cycling the tank: A new fish tank needs time to go through the nitrogen cycle, which establishes beneficial bacteria that break down toxic ammonia and nitrite into less harmful nitrate. Cycling a tank typically takes several weeks. Adding fish before the cycle is complete can expose them to harmful ammonia and nitrite spikes, which can be stressful and even fatal.

Water parameters: When a tank is first set up, water parameters such as pH, temperature, and ammonia levels may not be suitable for fish. It takes time for the tank to stabilize and for the water parameters to reach the appropriate range for the fish you plan to keep. Sudden changes in water parameters can stress or shock fish.

Plant and decor acclimation: If you plan to include live plants or decorations in your tank, they may need time to establish and settle. Some plants require specific lighting conditions or adjustments, and decorations may need to be cleaned or prepared before they are safe for fish.

To properly set up your fish tank and ensure the well-being of your fish, it's recommended to follow these steps:

Set up the tank: Install the filtration system, heater (if necessary), and other necessary equipment. Fill the tank with dechlorinated water and add appropriate substrate and decorations.

Start the nitrogen cycle: Add a source of ammonia, such as fish food or a dedicated ammonia source, to initiate the nitrogen cycle. Monitor water parameters regularly and allow the cycle to progress until ammonia and nitrite levels are consistently zero, and nitrates are present.

Test water parameters: Use a water test kit to monitor and ensure that the water parameters are suitable for the fish you plan to keep. Parameters such as temperature, pH, ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate should be within the acceptable range.

Introduce fish gradually: Once the tank has cycled and water parameters are stable, you can slowly introduce fish to the tank. Start with a few hardy and compatible fish species and monitor their behaviour and health closely.

By following these steps, you give your tank the time it needs to establish a stable environment, which will help ensure the health and well-being of your fish in the long run.

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